Kalmegh herb Andrographis paniculata plant for liver health and immune health
March 1 2014

Kalmegh is used in the Indian traditional system of medicine as a liver protective agent and has been reported to have antioxidant effects against different liver toxins. We are not certain whether high doses induce insomnia.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2014 Jan 28. Determination of six components of Andrographis paniculata extract and one major metabolite of andrographolide in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Kalmegh protects against arsenic toxicity
In vitro cytogenetic effects of Andrographis paniculata ( kalmegh ) on arsenic.
Phytomedicine. 2008y Department of Zoology, University School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
It is thus concluded from this study that kalmegh has a protective role in arsenic toxicity.

Kalmegh and liver health
Andrographis paniculata Kalmegh is used extensively in the Indian traditional system of medicine as a hepatoprotective and hepatostimulative agent and has been reported to have antioxidant effects against different hepatotoxins.

Hepatoprotective effect of andrographolide against hexachlorocyclohexane-induced oxidative injury.
Integr Cancer Ther. 2007; Trivedi NP, Rawal UM, Patel BP. Department of Zoology, School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, India.
Many plant products are known to exert antioxidative effects by quenching various free radicals and singlet molecular oxygen. Andrographis paniculata Kalmegh is used extensively in the Indian traditional system of medicine as a liver protective and hepatostimulative agent and has been reported to have antioxidant effects against different hepatotoxins. The present study aims to analyze antioxidant properties of an active Kalmegh component, andrographolide. Our study indicates that the antioxidant effect of andrographolide could be due to its ability to activate antioxidant enzymes that catalyze the reaction of oxidants and are effective in severe liver damage.

Interaction with medications
Herb-drug interaction of Andrographis paniculata extract and andrographolide on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline in rats.
Chem Biol Interact. 2010. Institute of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.
Herb-drug interaction has become a serious problem since herbal medicine is extensively used in the modern world. This study investigates effects of Andrographis paniculata extract (APE) and its major component, andrographolide (AG), on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline, a typical substrate of cytochrome P450 1A2 enzyme, in rats. After Kalmegh or AG pretreatment for 3 days, on the fourth day rats were administered theophylline via femoral vein cannula. The blood theophylline levels were monitored by microdialysis sampling combined with HPLC-UV. The results indicated that the clearance of theophylline was significantly increased and the area under concentration-time curve (AUC) was reduced in both AG and APE pretreated groups at low-dose theophylline administration (1mg/kg). The elimination half-life (t(1/2beta)) and mean residence time (MRT) of theophylline were shortened by 14% and 17%, respectively, in the AG pretreated group when high-dose theophylline (5mg/kg) was given. However, theophylline accumulated in rat of the group with APE pretreatment. This phenomenon suggests that some other herbal components contained in Kalmegh extract may interact with theophylline and retard its elimination when theophylline was administered at a high dose. Our results suggest that patients who want to use CYP1A2-metabolized drugs such as caffeine and theophylline should be advised of the potential herb-drug interaction, to reduce therapeutic failure or increased toxicity of conventional drug therapy.